Soviet-Union radios
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In 1921, the first powerful radio station was set up to broadcast every day for a few hours. The new program was called "Spoken Newspaper of the Russian Telegraph Agency", and featured mostly news and propaganda material. In 1922 the station had the most powerful transmitter in the world. In 1925, the USSR started the world's first short wave station in Moscow.
Because radio receivers were still very expensive and unavailable for private use, sets of loudspeakers were installed in places of public gathering to make the spoken newspaper available to the people.
As radio use increased, the government did its best to secure the authority over radio development in the country. Foreign broadcasts were often jammed.
Russian workers listening to the radio, circa 1931
In the former Soviet Union household goods came in second place. Priority was given to production for military applications. After the death of Stalin, in 1953, a cautious start was made with making better household goods. The centrally planned economy was not really focused on consumers; functionality was more important than design; in general these designs were rather boring or blatant copies of designs from the West. That was the case with a radio like the Zvezda 54: a copy of the French Excelsior 52. Also, there was hardly any competition. Radios of the same "brand" were made by
more than one factory.

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